The Campaign to Return Tibet to the Motherland was an armed campaign to force Tibet under Chinese control. In the late summer of 1970 Hou signed the orders to mobilize troops to sieze and occupy the Tibetan plateau. During a congressional hearing, it was decided that a minimum of twenty-eight thousand men would be allocated for the invasion.
Prior to the revolution the Qing dynasty of China had made claims over the Kingdom of Tibet and maintained a regional power in Lhasa since the 1720's. The rule was at best, rocky with several campaigns conducted on political or cultural Tibetan soil. From 1834 to the early 20th century expeditions or campaigns were mounted on the region by the Sikhs, Russians, English, and the Qing themselves. Many of which prompting a government restructuring in Tibet by the Qing on several occasions.
During the Revolution and Japanese occupation in the east, Tibet declared itself an autonomous region in 1948 with the Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso) as its political and spiritual head of state. A number of small campaigns were made into the region by the Imperials, Republicans, and Communists but were all unsuccesfull and called back to better fight in the greater picture that was the main body of China.
Tibet stood independent until 1970 when the Communist government in Beijing decided it was time to reclaim a former province of China. The Formal decleration of war was made that summer.
Shortly after the invasion plan was drawn up and war declared Chinese troops stationed along the border were ordered to move in. More disciplined and better armed than the Tibetans (whose own weapons were outdated by a century in many cases) the NPCLA cut through the rocky country-side. In accordance to non-violence, much of the Buddhist population simply gave up and surrendered.
The simple act of surrender didn't save much of Tibet and several monestaries were ransacked by Chinese troops in an attempt to sieze weapons anyone may have been hiding. Anyone who shot back was ruthlessly hunted down and shot. Despite the aggression, the invasion was more of a peacock manuever.
The advancing columns of soldiers flew the national colors high and proudly and very often loud music accompanied the march. The goal of the display was to "peacock". Or to show their army off as much as possible to frieghten the enemy. The strategy was declared largely a success and several days later Lhasa agreed to surrender.
The invasion ended with Tibetan surrender. Meeting with Commander Lou Shai Dek and chairman Hou Sai Tang Tenzin Gyatso agreed to Tibet's surrender and seccesion into China. The Dalai Lama was allowed sanctuary in the summer palace where he remained for several months before escaping in the dead of the night for India, Bhutan, or Nepal, and quickly disappearing from the political compass.
China still maintains control of the province and has been prospecting the plateu for resources. Other projects include agricultural research programs bent on researching how to increase the provinces agricultural out-put and bring it from a substinance state to an exporting state.
The Potala Palace in Lhasa has been converted for regional governence and houses the seat of the Provincial governor, congress, security, and military command for the region.
The post where the Tibetan Campaign was initiated can be read on the sixth page of the second generation thread: