Saudi Arabia is the currently defunct Arabian kingdom. It has sense been dismantled by the Persians and Ethiopians respectively in 1970 and reduced to a tiny sphere of influence over the poor Arabian interior. As a rule, the successor Kingdom of Nejd is considered the poorest state in the world, having lost all its oil wealth. The wealthiest organization operating in the region is Spanish oil interests seeking to steal oil from the Persian reserves from under the border.
Prior to the 20th century, the area that would be Saudi Arabia was under Ottoman hegemony who claimed the Arabian coast and suzerainty over the Arabian interior in a bid to curb Portuguese naval exploitation in the region and the Indian Ocean. The region was held since the 1700's with fluctuating efficiency by the Ottomans.
The foundation of what would be the Saudi Kingdom was born from an alliance between dynasty founder Muhammad bin Saud and the founder of the puritanical sect of Sunni Islam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. This alliance would be destroyed by the Egyptian viceroy Mohammad Ali Pasha in 1818. A second Saudi state however emerged in the Arabian interior.
The Ottomans continued to hold suzerainty over the peninsula through the 19th century through control of a patchwork of tribal sheikhs and alliance. Though as an effect Ottoman hegemony would be broken by Abdul Aziz with western assistance. Abdul Aziz would later become known as Ibn Saud and would continue the tradition of Wahabbist rule in Arabia. Still, unification of the borders of Saudi Arabia would not occur until the 1930's.
The formation of CEL marked a transition in Saudi-Ottoman relationship with Suleiman III effectively forgiving the Saudis for dismantling their control of Arabia. Though in some ways being a member of CEL would just be the Ottomans maintaining that old Turkish suzerainty over the Arabian peninsula.
All the same, allying with the Ottomans didn't sit well with many of the political elite in Saudi Arabia who actively challenged the Saudi King's decision to accept Ottoman influence once again and later entered into revolt against it. This event was one marker that helped to end CEL as an effective alliance as Persia invaded to quell the rebellion, and Ethiopia close behind.
By war's end the Saudi family was dethroned and Mecca removed from Arabian control. Much of the country's oil was taken up and developed by Persia, who also took under their wing the Omani territories and Yemen.
Kingdom of NejdEdit
The successor to the unified state is the Kingdom of Nejd. Stripped off even the funds that would come upon them by Muslims embarking on Hajd this desert kingdom has devolved from its former glory to being a crippled, poor state.